This time last week, I was in Havana.
This is not a report from last week. It is a report from the late 1950s or early 1960s. If you don’t want to take my word for it, read Carlos Manuel Alvarez in the New York Times.
Packet-style breaking news from Cuba: we Americans have been involved in armed conflicts twice there, in the Spanish-American War in 1898 and in the 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion. The count so far looks like one and one. After 1898, Cuba shook off Spanish rule to become a unique and vibrant society, and most Cubans seem to view that intervention positively. Plus, San Juan Hill gave Theodore Roosevelt an enormous boost.
By the mid-1930s, Fulgencio Batista, strongman, dictator, and certainly a friend of the mob, consolidated his hold on Cuba. He eventually brought rampant gambling and widespread corruption to Cuba. Although the US government supported Batista, revolution was in the air by the mid-1950s. A young lawyer, Fidel Castro, and his brother Raoul, along with Che Guevara, led the successful overthrow of the Batista government in 1959.
In April of 1961, a Nicaragua-based, CIA-sponsored, 1400-man anti-Castro “brigade” invaded Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. The invasion was a disaster. Over 1100 of the brigade were captured. “14 were put on trial for crimes allegedly committed before the revolution, while the others were returned to the U.S. in exchange for medicine and food valued at U.S. $25 million. Castro’s victory was a powerful symbol across Latin America, but it also increased internal opposition primarily among the middle-class Cubans who had been detained in the run-up to the invasion. Although most were freed within a few days, many fled to the U.S., establishing themselves in Florida.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fidel_Castro
Having seen the terrain around the Bay of Pigs, including the dense Cienaga de Zapata, it’s not hard to understand why the invasion stalled. Most Cubans seem to view the Bay of Pigs for what it was, a fiasco.
After the events of 1961, time stopped. In fact, with the fall of the Soviet Union, from 1990 to about 2000, time went backward. This was Cuba’s “Special Period,” when support from the Soviets ended and the entire country fell into dire straits, short of everything.
Today, what we saw was how Castro’s unrestrained idealism, with the best of intentions, nearly destroyed a country. Cubans have universal education, universal healthcare, and no homelessness. But in this society, the infrastructure has crumbled; housing stock has steadily deteriorated, and the highly educated are vastly under-employed and underpaid.
The current government has reduced restrictions on free enterprise. Independent restaurants, “paladars,” flourish in Havana (see the photos). Some restoration and refurbishing is happening. But the work to be done is daunting!
High points of the trip: the Hemingway museum at Finca Vigia and the National Museum of Fine Arts in Havana.
If you click on any of the photos in this post, you should get a slide-show view that will have nice size and detail. I have almost 900 photos sitting in Lightroom; more to come.